THE ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS AND MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS
Already the first serious researchers of electricity and magnetism became convinced that electromagnetic oscillations these phenomena are interconnected: currents of charged particles create a special field in the space surrounding them, called magnetic. In turn, magnetic fields can be recorded by observing their effect on electric charges.
Many experimentally observable facts were first and fairly fully interpreted by Maxwell, the father of modern electromagnetic theory. Maxwell’s equations tie togetherthe vector of the electric field strength and the vector of the magnetic field induction at a given point in space. This general and extremely important result formed the basis for all further research in this area. The trivial solution of the Maxwell system of differential equations corresponds to a space in which both electric and magnetic fields are absent. However, there are other integrals of these equations corresponding to the oscillatory nature of the mutual change of both vectors. If the original system looks like this: Electromagnetic oscillations.
then excluding either E or B from these equations, one can obtain separate formulas for the magnitudes of the tension and induction: Electromagnetic oscillations.
even to the uninitiated in the intricacies of vector field mathematics, it becomes clear that the expressions for tension and induction look the same. That is, if a solution to the equation can be a periodically changing electric field, then the existence of a periodic magnetic field is also legal. Indeed, one of the solutions to the system is a sinusoidal field. More accurately:
These ideas have found practical implementation in radio electronics. The simplest converter of electrical energy into magnetic energy is the so-called. oscillatory circuit – an elementary electrical circuit with a capacitor and an inductor:
here the discharging capacitor gives up the energy of the electromagnetic field between the plates to the inductor, which converts this energy into the energy of the magnetic field around the coil. After the capacitor is completely discharged, and the energy of the magnetic field of the coil reaches its maximum value, the reverse process of transferring the energy of the coil to the capacitor begins. The current is inhibited in the coil due to the self-induction effect. As a result, we get a periodic sinusoidal change in the charge on the capacitor plates, which is nothing more than a solution to the equation:
The fluctuations would go on forever if not for heat loss. In reality, there is a process fading in time.