# COULOMB’S LAW IS ONE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS IN PHYSICS

Coulomb’s Law is one of the fundamental laws in physics. He examines the forces of interaction between two charged objects. As the distance between them increases, the force interaction and the characteristics of the electric field decrease. This idea has been translated into a relatively simple formula. Forces between objects can be co-directed or directed in opposite directions, depending on whether the ** objects are attracted** to each other or

**.**

*repelled*** CharlesAugustin de Coulon is a** late eighteenth century French scientist who gained worldwide recognition for the formulation and theoretical justification of his law in 1785. The system unit of the amount of charge is named after him.

**Force as a vector quantity**

The strength of the electrical interaction is a vector quantity. It has not only meaning, but also direction. The direction of the electric force depends on the charges of the interacting objects and their spatial orientation. If you know the types of charges on two objects, then the direction of the force acting on any of them can be determined with a little reasoning.

In the above diagram, in the first two interactions, objects have the same charge (positive or negative), which makes them repel each other. Forces acting on objects are directed in opposite directions.

In the third diagram, objects have an opposite charge, which makes them attract each other.

When it comes to determining the direction of the electric force vector, the best way is to apply the basic rule of charge interaction: opposite charges attract, the same charge repels.

Consider two balloons:

If they are charged with charges of the same name, then they will repel each other, and the force with which they repel can be changed by changing three variables:

**Coulomb’s law**

A quantitative expression of the influence of the three variables given above on the force of interaction of charged bodies is known as **Coulomb’s law** .

Coulomb’s law states that the strength of the electrical interaction between two charged objects (F) is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

In the form of a formula, Coulomb’s law has the form:

where [q _{1} ] is the charge modulus of object 1 (in pendants), [q _{2} ] is the charge modulus of object 2, r is the distance between two objects (in meters).

**k is the coefficient of** proportionality, known as the constant of Coulomb’s law. Its value depends on the environment surrounding the charged objects. In the case of air, the value is approximately 9.0 × 10 ^{9} Nm ^{2} / Cl ^{2} .

*Coulomb’s Law accurately describes the forces of interaction between two objects when they can be considered ***point charges ***. The charged sphere interacts with other charged objects as if the entire charge is located in its center. While the charge is evenly distributed over the entire surface of the sphere, the center of the sphere can be considered the center of the charge.*

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